Material Laboratory / Experiments


Cyanotype seems to be the same as emotion.

In the blink of an eye, the traces of rust turned from fresh Prussian blue. It is so noble, but it is also easy to deteriorate. Just like our emotion and relationship.

In the blink of an eye, under the catalysis of both human and external factors, the irrationality has overflowed the boundary, which is unrestrained and out of control at the same time. just like our emotion and relationship.

Cyanotype Tutorial

Equipment Needed

1. Material:

(Any type of paper, absorbent fabric, wood material ) The result will depend on the absorbency of the materials.


2. Chemicals :
– Potassium Ferricyanide (red powder )
– Ferric Ammonium Citrate (greenish-black powder )


3. Prepare the ” film negatives,”

which refers to the item you want to print ( they can be various plants, X-ray films, negatives). It is recommended to use semi-transparent objects as they can create different gradient colors and variations in shades.


4.  Auxiliary Tools:
– Timer
– Foam Brush / Paint Brush for applying the solution
– Hairdryer (speed up drying)
– Adhesive tape
– Acrylic or glass board ( secure the substrate and negative).


5. Environment
– Dark Room Area
– A beautiful “sunny day” or a “UV exposure machine.”


1. Select negatives / objectprint

2.  Mix Chemicals:

Potassium Ferricyanide Solution: Mix potassium ferricyanide (red prussiate) and water in a 1:10 ratio, stir until the powder is no longer visible.

Ferric Ammonium Citrate Solution: Mix ferric ammonium citrate and water in a 1:4 ratio, stir well.

3. Prepare the  light-sensitive solution: 

Mix the potassium ferricyanide solution and ferric ammonium citrate solution in a 1:1 ratio, stir well.

4. Apply the light-sensitivesolution onto the your papers or objects. Be sure to evenly coat the materials, leaving no bubbles or streak marks.  (This step should stay inside the dark dark room area. Try to avoid UV exposure.) ⚠️⚠️⚠️⚠️

5. Arrange the negatives / objects onto the light-sensitive paper. We can use adhesive tape to hold the paper down or place a piece of glass on top to make sure it is all flat.

6. Expose it to sunlight until it turns into a deep blue color. (Adjust the exposure time according to the strength of the sunlight (normally takes 5 – 30 mins which depeneds on weather)

7. Wash Prints

Why I use cyanotype as artistic medium

Expression through Cyanotype was inspired by Mike Ware, a chemist and photographer. I was looking for a way to metaphorically preserve flowing and intangible ‘time’ through the characteristics of the material itself, rather than drawing specific objects like clocks or numbers. In many cases, Cyanotype was used to reprint photos or other realistic pictures, but I tried to retain watercolor techniques of painting, splashing and flow in a Cyanotype way, capturing and encapsulating ‘time and emotion’ with the material itself. The blue version is printed with light, and the ‘time’ of exposure depends on the depth of color. 

Encapsulation of Emotion

These patterns perfectly preserve the ‘time’ and current emotions of different stages.


Process the print by rinsing it in cold water

Sun Explosion

The process of chemical change